What is photosensitized oxidation?

Photosensitized oxidations are involved in a multitude of phenomena triggered by the excitation of photosensitizer molecules by light, yielding excited states and other reactive species that ultimately elicit oxidative reactions.

What are Photosensitized reactions?

Photosensitization is a reaction to light that is mediated by a light-absorbing molecule, which is not the ultimate target. Photosensitization can involve reactions within living cells or tissues, or they can occur in pure chemical systems. In photobiology, we are concerned with the reactions in living systems.

How can you type 1 photosensitization reaction be distinguished from type 2 reaction?

A Type I reaction involves an electron or hydrogen transfer between the 3Sens and a substrate (SH) to yield an ion radical or free radical species (Scheme 4), whereas a Type II reaction involves interaction between 3Sens and ground state molecular oxygen.

What is Photooxidation reaction?

Photo-oxidation is a chain process incorporating a large number of chemical reactions which are subsequent to the outcome of the primary event—absorption of a photon, which induces breakdown to free-radical products.

What is photosensitized reaction and photosensitizer?

A reaction is considered photosensitized when an excited molecule (the donor or photosensitizer) induces photochemical reactions in molecules (the acceptor or quencher) that are not photochemically reactive by themselves, i.e., do not absorb light in the considered wavelength range.

What is photosensitizer in chemistry?

Photosensitizers are molecules that can be activated by light in order to generate ROS that can damage cell structures from microorganisms or from diseased mammalian cells leading to cell death.

What is photosensitized reaction example?

The decomposition of ozone in ordinary light by a trace of chlorine is an example of a photosensitized reaction. The mercury atoms absorb the light energy, there being a suitable electronic transition in the atom that corresponds to the energy of the incident light.

What are the two types of photosensitizing reactions?

Photosensitized reactions involving oxygen are framed as either as type I or type II. Type I and II photosensitized oxidation reactions require oxygen as a reagent. The type I and II photosensitized mechanisms apply to photoreactions including initial electron or hydrogen atom abstraction as an oxidizing step.

What are photosensitized reactions explain give two examples of photosensitized reactions which are observed in daily life?

Another photosensitized reaction is the decomposition of oxalic acid in the presence of uranyl sulphate. The uranyl ion acts as a photosensitizer. The decomposition of ozone in ordinary light by a trace of chlorine is an example of a photosensitized reaction.

What is photooxidation of chlorophyll A?

Photo-oxidation means the release of electrons after absorption of a photon occurs during non-cyclic photophosphorylation.

What is Photosubstitution reaction?

Photosubstitution reactions are substitution reactions that are catalysed or done in the presence of sunlight. Example of photosubstitution reaction is chlorination of CH4 using HCl. CH4 + HCl ——–> CH3Cl + H2. CH3Cl + HCl ——> CH2Cl + H2.

What is photosensitizer in chemistry class 12?

It is a chemical substance which is added to the reaction mixture to initiate a photochemical reaction without undergoing any chemical change itself and the phenomenon is known as photosensitisation.

What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 photosensitized oxidation?

Type II is a sensitizer energy-transfer process to oxygen: Type II does not refer energy transfer excluding oxygen, such as that between Sens* and carotenoids. Photosensitized oxidation applies to molecules and living matter. Photodynamic action is killing via type I or II. It is rational for being oxygen-dependent.

How are sensitized photooxidation reactions related to UVA radiation?

Sensitized photooxidation reactions of key biomolecules including unsaturated lipids, proteins and nucleic acids that trigger the so-called photodynamic effects have been shown to be mostly implicated in the deleterious biological effects of UVA radiation through the involvement of endogenous photosensitizers 1 – 3.

Which is an example of an anthropogenic photosensitizer?

Anthropogenic exogenous photosensitizers such as methylene blue, phthalocyanine and hematoporphyrin derivatives are widely used either in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin diseases and malignant cells 4, 5 or in the inactivation of bacteria and fungi 6 – 8.