What causes Abiotrophia?

Most of the cases of IE are known to occur due to infection by viridans Streptococci or Staphylococci species. Abiotrophia defectiva is known to cause less than 1% of cases of IE.

Is Granulicatella Adiacens a Viridans strep?

The most common streptococci responsible for IE are oral streptococci of the viridans group, followed by enteric S. bovis (recently renamed S. gallolyticus), and more rarely group A, B, C and G streptococci, pneumococci and nutritionally variant streptococci (Abiotrophia defectiva, Granulicatella adiacens and Gemella).

What is nutritionally variant streptococci?

Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) were first described by Frenkel and Hirsch1 in 1961 as a new type of gram-positive coccus that exhibited satelliting around colonies of other bacteria. These bacteria require vitamin B6 or cysteine from either growth media or adjacent bacteria for cultivation and growth.

How is Abiotrophia treated?

American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for treatment of Abiotrophia and Granulicatella endocarditis (and, by inference, other serious infections caused by these organisms) include administration of penicillin (or ceftriaxone, if susceptible) (3).

What is infective endocarditis?

Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the inner lining of the heart muscle (endocardium) caused by bacteria, fungi, or germs that enter through the bloodstream.

What is Camp test in microbiology?

The CAMP test (Christie–Atkins–Munch-Peterson) is a test to identify group B β-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) based on their formation of a substance (CAMP factor) that enlarges the area of hemolysis formed by the β-hemolysin elaborated from Staphylococcus aureus.

How do you treat Granulicatella Adiacens?

Current guidelines recommend for infective endocarditis due to Granulicatella a treatment with antibiotics that are used for treatment of infective endocarditis due to streptococci with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin (combination of penicillins or ceftriaxon or vancomycin 4-6 weeks and gentamicin 2 weeks) [ …

What are the signs and symptoms of infective endocarditis?

What are the symptoms of bacterial endocarditis?

  • Fever or chills.
  • Night sweats.
  • Fatigue.
  • Aching muscles and joints.
  • Trouble breathing with activity.
  • Shortness of breath while lying down.
  • Cough.
  • Nausea.

What is the most common cause of infective endocarditis?

Approximately 80% of infective endocarditis cases are caused by the bacteria streptococci and staphylococci. The third most common bacteria causing this disease is enterococci, and, like staphylococci, is commonly associated with healthcare-associated infective endocarditis.

Which bacteria are CAMP test positive?

A number of other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are known to react positively in the CAMP test, including Rhodococcus equi (9), Pasteurella haemolytica (8), Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria seeligeri (27), Aeromonas sp. (7), certain Vibrio spp. (18), and group G streptococci (34).

Why CAMP test is performed?

Is Granulicatella Adiacens a contaminant?

A single blood culture taken grew G. adiacens, which was reported by the laboratory as a possible contaminant.

What kind of disease is Abiotrophia defectiva associated with?

NVS are an important cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE) associated with significant morbidity and mortalit … Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are fastidious Gram-positive cocci comprised of the species Abiotrophia defectiva, Granulicatella adiacens, and Granulicatella elegans.

How does Abiotrophia spp grow in the blood?

In contrast, Abiotrophia spp. grow well in blood, but fail to grow when subcultured on conventional agar media. These so-called deficient bacteria do grow as satellite colonies if the plates are streaked with S. aureus, or if the growth medium is enriched with vitamin B6.

What kind of organism is Abiotrophia Granulicatella?

In the past, fastidious organisms such as the nutritional variant streptococci (e.g. now being renamed to the genus Abiotrophia and Granulicatella) and HACEK ( Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Eikenella, Cardiobacterium, Kingella spp.) organisms constituted a number of cases of culture-negative endocarditis.

What causes death from Abiotrophia related endocarditis?

Most reported deaths due to Abiotrophia related endocarditis are due to valvular disease, acute heart failure or major systemic embolization. Hence, early suspicion, diagnosis and aggressive treatment of this culture-negative endocarditis is important to prevent the fatal complications and have a better prognosis for the patients.