What are satellite cells in muscle?

Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Since their original identification, satellite cells have been considered as unipotent myogenic precursor cells.

Where are satellite cells found in muscle?

Skeletal muscle satellite cells are quiescent mononucleated myogenic cells, located between the sarcolemma and basement membrane of terminally-differentiated muscle fibres.

Do satellite cells contribute to muscle growth?

Satellite cells (SCs) are the most abundant skeletal muscle stem cells. They are widely recognized for their contributions to maintenance of muscle mass, regeneration and hypertrophy during the human life span.

How are satellite cells involved in muscle hypertrophy?

Following proliferation, satellite cells differentiate, and either fuse with each other forming new myofibers, fuse to an existing muscle fiber donating their nucleus to the fiber thereby allowing muscle fiber hypertrophy, or return back to their quiescent state (self-renewal).

Which cells are used in satellite?

Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle. Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle cells, able to give rise to satellite cells or differentiated skeletal muscle cells.

How are muscle satellite cells activated?

Signals to activate satellite cells Upon muscle injury, a combination of signals is generated by damaged myofibers, blood vessels, and immune cells to wake up the quiescent satellite cells. The activated satellite cells also signal back to the environment to orchestrate orderly muscle regeneration (Fig. 1).

How do satellite cells increase muscle growth?

Insulin. While it’s better known for increasing intramuscular energy, glucose uptake, and protein synthesis, insulin has also been shown to enhance satellite cell fusion. It does this by increasing satellite cell density and promoting extensive myotube formation and enhanced differentiation.

Are satellite cells in the CNS or PNS?

Satellite glial cells are a type of glia found in the peripheral nervous system, specifically in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia. They compose the thin cellular sheaths that surround the individual neurons in these ganglia.

How do muscle satellite cells work?

Satellite cells are able to differentiate and fuse to augment existing muscle fibers and to form new fibers. These cells represent the oldest known adult stem cell niche, and are involved in the normal growth of muscle, as well as regeneration following injury or disease.

How do satellites increase muscle cells?

Which is an activator of satellite cells?

Two processes are reported to affect satellite cell activation. In vivo, nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase in fibers (NOS-Iμ) promotes activation. In cell cultures, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is the major activating factor isolated from crushed muscle extract (CME).

How can I increase my satellite cell count?

Previous studies have shown that the number of satellite cells is increased by long-term or acute exercise training in humans and animals [4, 5] and decreases during aging in conjunction with a reduction in the muscle quality and functional potential [6].