How do you identify REM sleep on EEG?

By strict sleep staging criteria on polysomnography, REM sleep is defined by (1) rapid eye movements, (2) muscle atonia, and (3) EEG desynchronization (compared to slow wave sleep).

What does the EEG show during REM sleep?

Following a period of slow-wave sleep, however, EEG recordings show that the stages of sleep reverse to reach a quite different state called rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep. In REM sleep, the EEG recordings are remarkably similar to that of the awake state (see Figure 28.5).

In which stage do slow eye movements appear?

Stage 1 – occurs mostly in the beginning of sleep, with slow eye movement. This state is sometimes referred to as relaxed wakefulness. Alpha waves disappear and the theta wave appears. People aroused from this stage often believe that they have been fully awake.

What does drowsy EEG mean?

Sleep-deprived EEG tests When you are tired, there is more chance that there will be unusual electrical activity in your brain. Your doctor might ask you to have this test if you have had a standard EEG test, but it didn’t show any unusual electrical activity.

In which EEG channels are slow waves most prominent?

The most prominent EEG events in sleep are slow waves, reflecting a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation between up and down states in cortical neurons. It is unknown whether slow oscillations are synchronous across the majority or the minority of brain regions—are they a global or local phenomenon?

Can an EEG detect insomnia?

Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been widely used for capturing the electrical human’s brain activities for diagnosis and treatment purposes. One of the applications of EEG is to detect the sleep disorders include insomnia and stress-related disorder depend on the severity of the disorders.

What stage of sleep are alpha waves associated with?

In terms of brain wave activity, stage 1 sleep is associated with both alpha and theta waves. The early portion of stage 1 sleep produces alpha waves, which are relatively low frequency (8–13Hz), high amplitude patterns of electrical activity (waves) that become synchronized ([link]).

What stage of sleep is theta waves?

The theta waves characteristic of Stage Two sleep are interrupted by occasional series of high-frequency waves known as sleep spindles. These bursts of activity have a frequency of eight to fourteen Hz and an amplitude of 50 to 150 µV.

What is the most common complaint by patients who have narcolepsy?

Most often, narcoleptics present with the primary complaint of falling asleep at inappropriate times. It is also possible for narcoleptics to experience insomnia or uncontrollable muscle weakness.

In what way is paradoxical sleep a paradox?

During paradoxical sleep, our muscles are relaxed so that we don’t act out our dreams. If this fails, REM sleep behavior disorder can develop. The paradox is that even though the brain is quite active during REM sleep, consuming large amounts of energy, the body remains completely inactive.

Can EEG detect focal seizures?

When a seizure happens during an EEG, the normal pattern of brain activity that is seen on the EEG reading changes, and different brain activity can be seen. In focal seizures the change in brain activity can be seen only on the electrodes on the part of the brain the seizure is happening in.

What does it mean to have slow brain waves?

Focal slow wave activity on the EEG is indicative of focal cerebral pathology of the underlying brain region. Slowing may be intermittent or persistent, with more persistent or consistently slower activity generally indicating more severe underlying focal cerebral dysfunction.

What are slow rolling eye movements on EEG?

Slow rolling eye movements (SREMs): SREMs are usually the first evidence of drowsiness seen on the EEG. SREMs of drowsiness are most often horizontal but can be vertical or oblique, and their distribution is similar to eye movements in general (see EEG Artifacts ). However, they are slow (ie, typically 0.25-0.5 Hz).

What are the EEG waveform features of drowsiness in stage?

Slow rolling eye movements (SREMs): SREMs are usually the first evidence of drowsiness seen on the EEG. SREMs of drowsiness are most often horizontal but can be vertical or oblique, and their distribution is similar to eye movements in general (see EEG Artifacts). However, they are slow (ie, typically 0.25-0.5 Hz).

What happens to your EEG when you go to sleep?

Representative EEG waveforms are shown in the images below. The earliest indication of transition from wakefulness to stage I sleep (drowsiness) is shown here and usually consists of a combination of (1) drop out of alpha activity and (2) slow rolling eye movements. Slow rolling (lateral) eye movements during stage I sleep.

How to gain a complete sense of the background EEG?

To gain a complete sense about the background EEG, one should employ a variety of different screening montages to enable several different perspectives of its chief frequencies, amplitude, and degree of synchrony. One of the initial goals for EEG interpretation is determination of the background.