How to make erythritol tetranitrate?
Like other nitrated polyols, ETN is made by nitrating erythritol either through the mixing of concentrated sulfuric acid and a nitrate salt, or by using a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acid.
Is erythritol used in explosives?
Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), an ester of nitric acid and erythritol, is a solid crystalline explosive with high explosive performance. Although it has never been used in any industrial or military application, it has become one of the most prepared and misused improvise explosives.
How to nitrate erythritol?
Erythritol Nitrate (ETN) is prepared through the combination of AN, sulfuric acid and the erythritol sweetener. Typically, the reaction will be conducted in a cooled vessel. Once all of the erythritol has been converted to ETN, the solid material is filtered from the acid solution.
How sensitive is ETN?
At room temperature, ETN exhibited an impact sensitivity of 14.7 ± 3.4 cm, which changed to 1.0 ± 0.6 cm in the liquid state at 65 °C. This is the most sensitive material that we have been able to measure using our instrumentation, and indicates that ETN be handled with extreme caution during the melt-casting process.
What is PETN made of?
PETN has the chemical formula C5H8N4O12. It is prepared by reacting pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), an alcohol traditionally used in paints and varnishes, with nitric acid (HNO2).
Is erythritol water soluble?
Zerose® erythritol is a low molecular weight polyol, comprised of four carbon atoms. It appears as a white crystalline, odorless product which rapidly dissolves in water (up to 60 g/100 ml at 30°C) to give a brilliantly clear, low viscosity, colorless solution.
What is the difference between an ETF and ETN?
An ETF is a basket of financial assets that are traded on a stock exchange. An ETN is different in composition than an ETF. ETFs are baskets of underlying securities put together by the fund developers. ETNs are senior debt securities that are unsecured and issued by a financial institution.
Is ETN a primary explosive?
Sensitiveness analysis of the energetic material revealed it to be a primary explosive, significantly more sensitive than PETN to friction and impact. This should not be surprising, since both ETN and PETN show very similar detonation properties as were recently measured.
Is PETN waterproof?
Pentex™ PowerPlus™ boosters contains a patented waterproof plastic bottle containing PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) explosive, allowing initiation by low charge weight detonating cords while delivering high Velocities of Detonation (VOD) to maximise performance.
Is PETN a secondary explosive?
PETN is a second- ary explosive and as such is not as sensitive as primary explosives such as lead azide. Cast primers of PETN are also supplied as shaped charges. RDX – RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) is second in strength to nitroglycerin among common explosives substances.
Why is erythritol bad?
Erythritol side effects typically include digestive problems and diarrhea. It may also cause bloating, cramps, and gas. Additionally, erythritol and other sugar alcohols frequently result in more water in the intestines, causing diarrhea. Nausea and headaches may occur as well.
Is there such a thing as Erythritol tetranitrate?
Erythritol tetranitrate is not sold by almost any entities, even big chemical suppliers like Sigma-Aldrich don’t have it in their stock. Erythritol tetranitrate can be prepared by nitrating erythritol using a nitrating mixture.
Which is more sensitive to friction PETN or ETN?
ETN is about 3 times more sensitive than PETN and is more sensitive to friction than the former mentioned compound. The decomposition of ETN is oxygen positive: Mixing ETN with an oxygen negative explosive material in the best ratio, improves the performance of both materials.
What happens if you drink too much erythritol?
Safety. Erythritol tetranitrate is sensitive to strong shock and friction, and may explode. If consumed, it results in severe headaches, due to being a strong vasodilator, property seen in other nitrated organic compounds.