How is Penicilliosis transmitted?

marneffei, the etiological fungus of talaromycosis is transmitted to human through inhalation of spores from soil. It then spreads to the reticuloendothelial system, skin and other organ system through the hematogenous route.

How is Penicilliosis diagnosed?

(See “Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection”, section on ‘Epidemiology’.) A definitive diagnosis is usually made by culture of the fungus from blood, skin biopsy, bone marrow, or lymph nodes.

What is Penicillium infection?

Penicillium marneffei is an emerging pathogenic fungus that can cause a fatal systemic mycosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). P. marneffei infection is endemic in tropical Asia, especially Thailand, northeastern India, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Taiwan (25, 33, 61, 125, 151, 185).

What disease does Penicillium cause?

Superficial infection (keratitis and otomycosis) is commonly caused by Penicillium spp. Allergic pulmonary disease, often occupational (such as various cheeseworkers’ diseases), is also common. Optimal therapy for invasive infection is not established, but surgery may be advisable if possible.

What causes Penicilliosis?

Penicilliosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus, Penicillium marneffei, which is endemic in Southeast Asia.

What causes Chromoblastomycosis?

Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The infection usually results from a traumatic injury and inoculation of microorganism from a specific group of dematiaceous fungi (usually Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora carrionii).

What disease is caused by Rhizopus?

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare fungus infection reported mainly from the United States of America and Europe. The disease is caused by zygomycete fungi, most often by a Rhizopus species.

How is Penicillium treated?

The potent in vitro activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and terbinafine (TRB) and of the echinocandins against Penicillium and Talaromyces species might offer a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi.

How is Otomycosis treated?

You may need to use antifungal ear drops to treat otomycosis. They may include clotrimazole and fluconazole. Acetic acid is another common treatment for otomycosis. Usually, a 2 percent solution of these ear drops is used several times a day for about a week.

Is Aspergillus contagious to humans?

But people who have a weakened immune system from illness or immunosuppressant medications have fewer infection-fighting cells. This allows aspergillus to take hold, invading the lungs and, in the most serious cases, other parts of the body. Aspergillosis is not contagious from person to person.

Is there a cure for chromoblastomycosis?

Severe cases should be treated for several years. The authors’ experience in treating more than 25 patients with varying degrees of severity for as long as 5 years shows that itraconazole produces dramatic improvement after a few months of therapy; however, a complete cure is rarely reached, especially in severe cases.

What are the symptoms of chromoblastomycosis?


Medical Terms Other Names
Hypopigmented skin patches Patchy loss of skin color
Recurrent bacterial infections Bacterial infections, recurrent Frequent bacterial infections Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections Recurrent major bacterial infections [ more ]
Vascular skin abnormality

Where does the fungus that causes penicilliosis come from?

Penicilliosis is an infection caused by Penicillium marneffei, a dimorphic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia and the southern part of China.( 1) Rarely noted before the AIDS epidemic, P marneffei infections have become more…

When does penicilliosis occur in a AIDS patient?

Penicilliosis, disseminated infection with the fungus Penicillium marneffei, has become an important opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in southeast Asia (especially northern Thailand) and southern China. The disease usually occurs when CD4 counts fall below 50 cells/mm 3 [36].

What are the signs and symptoms of penicilliosis?

Common presenting symptoms include fever, sweats, wasting, and skin lesions—often papules with central umbilication or nodules, but a wide range of skin eruptions are possible—in association with anemia, lymphadenopathy, and hepatomegaly. Diagnosis is often made by bone marrow examination or skin biopsy, and less reliably from blood cultures.

What’s the difference between penicilliosis and Talaromycosis?

Talaromycosis (formerly Penicilliosis) Definition. Talaromycosis is an infection caused by the fungus Talaromyces marneffei. The name of the fungus and the name of the infection have changed. T. marneffei used to be called Penicillium marneffei, and talaromycosis used to be called penicilliosis.