How do you calculate BaP equivalent?
Calculation of BaP-equivalent concentrations.
- (BaP-TEQ)Σ8PAH = [BaA] × 0.1 + [Chry] × 0.01 + [BbFA] × 0.1 + [BkFA] × 0.1 + [BaP] × 1 + [IP] × 0.1 + [DahA] × 5 + [BghiP] × 0.01.
- (BaP-MEQ)Σ8PAH = [BaA] × 0.082 + [Chry] × 0.017 + [BbFA] × 0.25 + [BkFA] × 0.11 + [BaP] × 1 + [IP] × 0.31 + [DahA] × 0.29 + [BghiP] × 0.19.
What is benzo a pyrene TEQ?
The Benzo(a)pyrene TEQ seeks to provide a toxicity- weighted sum of analyte concentrations for a specific list of PAHs in order to provide a single, objective concentration as a Health Investigation Level(HIL). At the same time, a separate HIL for Benzo (a) pyrene is no longer required in the NEPM.
Why is benzo a pyrene a carcinogen?
The substance with the formula C20H12 is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring fused to pyrene. Its diol epoxide metabolites (more commonly known as BPDE) react and bind to DNA, resulting in mutations and eventually cancer. It is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC.
Is benzo a pyrene a carcinogen?
The PAH prototype benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), an AhR ligand, exhibits a strong carcinogenic potential and it is classified as a carcinogen to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
How is benzo a pyrene toxic?
Background. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is bioactivated to its carcinogenic form by phase 1 and phase 2 metabolism. As with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the presence of the ‘bay region’ contributes greatly to the carcinogenicity of BaP.
Is benzo a pyrene a PCB?
Benzo[a]pyrene is an ortho- and peri-fused polycyclic arene consisting of five fused benzene rings. It has a role as a carcinogenic agent and a mouse metabolite.
What is the effect of benzo a pyrene?
Repeated exposure to substances containing benzo[a]pyrene may cause the skin to thicken and darken, and for pimples to appear. Long-term skin changes include both loss of color and reddish areas, thinning of the skin and warts. Bronchitis may result from repeated exposure to mixtures containing benzo(a)pyrene.
Is benzo a pyrene hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Researchers have also revealed that PAHs cause brain damage and behavior disorder and they could be transferred from mothers to newborns and young infants [19,20]. Because of its lipophilic and hydrophobic properties, benzo(a)pyrene can easily cross cell membranes and attend to bioaccumulate in lipid tissues.
What is the chemical formula of benzo a pyrene?
Is benzo a pyrene a liquid?
Benzo[a]pyrene appears as a liquid. Benzo[a]pyrene is an ortho- and peri-fused polycyclic arene consisting of five fused benzene rings.
How does benzo a pyrene mutate DNA?
Within a lung cell, benzo[a]pyrene is converted to an epoxide. The epoxide reacts readily with guanine (G) positions of the DNA helix. If not corrected by the cell’s DNA repair mechanism, this guanine â€œadductâ€ is misread as a thymine by the DNA polymerase that copies chromosomes during replication.
Is benzo a pyrene organic?
A benzopyrene is an organic compound with the formula C20H12. Structurally speaking, the colorless isomers of benzopyrene are pentacyclic hydrocarbons and are fusion products of pyrene and a phenylene group.
How is the benzo ( a ) pyrene TEQ reported?
The reporting of the Benzo(a)pyrene TEQ follows the same approach used for the reporting of a TEQ for dioxins. Each of the constituent compounds that contribute to the Benzo(a)pyrene TEQ has a specific toxic equivalence factor (TEF) that weights its toxicity relative to that of Benzo(a)pyrene.
Which is more potent benzo pyrene or PAH?
In the past, EPA has assessed risks posed by mixtures of PAHs by assuming that all carcinogenic PAHs are as potent as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), one of the most potent PAHs. The available information on the toxicity of the PAHs suggests that most are considerably less potent than B[a]P and therefore, the EPA approach is likely to overestimate risks.
How is benzo pyrene released into the atmosphere?
Benzo[a]pyrene is a fivering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). – Benzo[a]pyrene (along with other PAHs) is released into the atmosphere as a component of smoke from forest fires, industrial processes, vehicle exhaust, cigarettes, and through the burning of fuel (such as wood, coal, and petroleum products).
Are there toxic equivalency factors for all PAHs?
However, toxicity criteria are not available for all the PAHs. In the past, EPA has assessed risks posed by mixtures of PAHs by assuming that all carcinogenic PAHs are as potent as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), one of the most potent PAHs.